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Symbols, Mathematical Symbols and Greek Letters

The following table contains additional named entities, including Greek characters, punctuation marks, symbols, arrows and mathematical operators. The table provides each character, its decimal code, its named entity reference for HTML and also a brief description (including the ISO 10646 character number in hex, e.g. U0192).


  1. With the exception of the left and right-pointing brackets (〈 and 〉), the entities on this page are rendered using Lucida sans Unicode.
  2. Greek entities: This entity set contains all the letters used in modern Greek. They are intended for occasional use in technical and mathematical works.


Character Decimal code Named entity Description
Latin Extended-B
ƒ ƒ ƒ Latin small f with hook, =function, =florin, U0192 ISOtech
Α Α Α Greek capital letter alpha, U0391
Β Β Β Greek capital letter beta, U0392
Γ Γ Γ Greek capital letter gamma, U0393 ISOgrk3
Δ Δ Δ Greek capital letter delta, U0394 ISOgrk3
Ε Ε Ε Greek capital letter epsilon, U0395
Ζ Ζ Ζ Greek capital letter zeta, U0396
Η Η Η Greek capital letter eta, U0397
Θ Θ Θ Greek capital letter theta, U0398 ISOgrk3
Ι Ι Ι Greek capital letter iota, U0399
Κ Κ Κ Greek capital letter kappa, U039A
Λ Λ Λ Greek capital letter lambda, U039B ISOgrk3
Μ Μ Μ Greek capital letter mu, U039C
Ν Ν Ν Greek capital letter nu, U039D
Ξ Ξ Ξ Greek capital letter xi, U039E ISOgrk3
Ο Ο Ο Greek capital letter omicron, U039F
Π Π Π Greek capital letter pi, U03A0 ISOgrk3
Ρ Ρ Ρ Greek capital letter rho, U03A1
Σ Σ Σ Greek capital letter sigma, U03A3 ISOgrk3
Τ Τ Τ Greek capital letter tau, U03A4
Υ Υ Υ Greek capital letter upsilon, U03A5 ISOgrk3
Φ Φ Φ Greek capital letter phi, U03A6 ISOgrk3
Χ Χ Χ Greek capital letter chi, U03A7
Ψ Ψ Ψ Greek capital letter psi, U03A8 ISOgrk3
Ω Ω Ω Greek capital letter omega, U03A9 ISOgrk3
α α α Greek small letter alpha, U03B1 ISOgrk3
β β β Greek small letter beta, U03B2 ISOgrk3
γ γ γ Greek small letter gamma, U03B3 ISOgrk3
δ δ δ Greek small letter delta, U03B4 ISOgrk3
ε ε ε Greek small letter epsilon, U03B5 ISOgrk3
ζ ζ ζ Greek small letter zeta, U03B6 ISOgrk3
η η η Greek small letter eta, U03B7 ISOgrk3
θ θ θ Greek small letter theta, U03B8 ISOgrk3
ι ι ι Greek small letter iota, U03B9 ISOgrk3
κ κ κ Greek small letter kappa, U03BA ISOgrk3
λ λ λ Greek small letter lambda, U03BB ISOgrk3
μ μ μ Greek small letter mu, U03BC ISOgrk3
ν ν ν Greek small letter nu, U03BD ISOgrk3
ξ ξ ξ Greek small letter xi, U03BE ISOgrk3
ο ο ο Greek small letter omicron, U03BF NEW
π π π Greek small letter pi, U03C0 ISOgrk3
ρ ρ ρ Greek small letter rho, U03C1 ISOgrk3
ς ς ς Greek small letter final sigma, U03C2 ISOgrk3
σ σ σ Greek small letter sigma, U03C3 ISOgrk3
τ τ τ Greek small letter tau, U03C4 ISOgrk3
υ υ υ Greek small letter upsilon, U03C5 ISOgrk3
φ φ φ Greek small letter phi, U03C6 ISOgrk3
χ χ χ Greek small letter chi, U03C7 ISOgrk3
ψ ψ ψ Greek small letter psi, U03C8 ISOgrk3
ω ω ω Greek small letter omega, U03C9 ISOgrk3
ϑ ϑ ϑ Greek small letter theta symbol, U03D1 NEW
ϒ ϒ ϒ Greek upsilon with hook symbol, U03D2 NEW
ϖ ϖ ϖ Greek pi symbol, U03D6 ISOgrk3
General Punctuation
• • bullet, =black small circle, U2022 ISOpub
… … horizontal ellipsis, =three dot leader, U2026 ISOpub
′ ′ prime, =minutes, =feet, U2032 ISOtech
″ ″ double prime, =seconds, =inches, U2033 ISOtech
‾ ‾ overline, =spacing overscore, U203E NEW
⁄ ⁄ fraction slash, U2044 NEW
Letterlike Symbols
℘ ℘ script capital P, =power set, =Weierstrass p, U2118 ISOamso
ℑ ℑ blackletter capital I, =imaginary part, U2111 ISOamso
ℜ ℜ blackletter capital R, =real part symbol, U211C ISOamso
™ ™ trade mark sign, U2122 ISOnum
ℵ ℵ alef symbol, =first transfinite cardinal, U2135 NEW
← ← leftward arrow, U2190 ISOnum
↑ ↑ upward arrow, U2191 ISOnum
→ → rightward arrow, U2192 ISOnum
↓ ↓ downward arrow, U2193 ISOnum
↔ ↔ left right arrow, U2194 ISOamsa
↵ ↵ downward arrow with corner leftward, =carriage return, U21B5 NEW
⇐ ⇐ leftward double arrow, U21D0 ISOtech
⇑ ⇑ upward double arrow, U21D1 ISOamsa
⇒ ⇒ rightward double arrow, U21D2 ISOtech
⇓ ⇓ downward double arrow, U21D3 ISOamsa
⇔ ⇔ left right double arrow, U21D4 ISOamsa
Mathematical Operators
∀ ∀ for all, U2200 ISOtech
∂ ∂ partial differential, U2202 ISOtech
∃ ∃ there exists, U2203 ISOtech
∅ ∅ empty set, =null set, =diameter, U2205 ISOamso
∇ ∇ nabla, =backward difference, U2207 ISOtech
∈ ∈ element of, U2208 ISOtech
∉ ∉ not an element of, U2209 ISOtech
∋ ∋ contains as member, U220B ISOtech
∏ ∏ n-ary product, =product sign, U220F ISOamsb
− ∑ n-ary sumation, U2211 ISOamsb
− − minus sign, U2212 ISOtech
∗ ∗ asterisk operator, U2217 ISOtech
√ √ square root, =radical sign, U221A ISOtech
∝ ∝ proportional to, U221D ISOtech
∞ ∞ infinity, U221E ISOtech
∠ ∠ angle, U2220 ISOamso
⊥ ∧ logical and, =wedge, U2227 ISOtech
⊦ ∨ logical or, =vee, U2228 ISOtech
∩ ∩ intersection, =cap, U2229 ISOtech
∪ ∪ union, =cup, U222A ISOtech
∫ ∫ integral, U222B ISOtech
∴ ∴ therefore, U2234 ISOtech
∼ ∼ tilde operator, =varies with, =similar to, U223C ISOtech
≅ ≅ approximately equal to, U2245 ISOtech
≅ ≈ almost equal to, =asymptotic to, U2248 ISOamsr
≠ ≠ not equal to, U2260 ISOtech
≡ ≡ identical to, U2261 ISOtech
≤ ≤ less-than or equal to, U2264 ISOtech
≥ ≥ greater-than or equal to, U2265 ISOtech
⊂ ⊂ subset of, U2282 ISOtech
⊃ ⊃ superset of, U2283 ISOtech
⊄ ⊄ not a subset of, U2284 ISOamsn
⊆ ⊆ subset of or equal to, U2286 ISOtech
⊇ ⊇ superset of or equal to, U2287 ISOtech
⊕ ⊕ circled plus, =direct sum, U2295 ISOamsb
⊗ ⊗ circled times, =vector product, U2297 ISOamsb
⊥ ⊥ up tack, =orthogonal to, =perpendicular, U22A5 ISOtech
⋅ ⋅ dot operator, U22C5 ISOamsb
Miscellaneous Technical
⌈ ⌈ left ceiling, =apl upstile, U2308, ISOamsc
⌉ ⌉ right ceiling, U2309, ISOamsc
⌊ ⌊ left floor, =apl downstile, U230A, ISOamsc
⌋ ⌋ right floor, U230B, ISOamsc
〈 ⟨ left-pointing angle bracket, =bra, U2329 ISOtech
〉 ⟩ right-pointing angle bracket, =ket, U232A ISOtech
Geometric Shapes
◊ ◊ lozenge, U25CA ISOpub
Miscellaneous Symbols
♠ ♠ black spade suit, U2660 ISOpub
♣ ♣ black club suit, =shamrock, U2663 ISOpub
♥ ♥ black heart suit, =valentine, U2665 ISOpub
♦ ♦ black diamond suit, U2666 ISOpub


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